Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Fascist Italy And Nazi Germany History Essay

Fascist Italy And Nazi Germany History Essay Fascism is actually an Italian word which was used by early Italians as a symbol of sovereignty and authority of Roman Empire. The actual meaning of the word is axe headed rods. The dominancy of Roman Empire was over their forces of nineteenth century as they aspire at combining the muscular nationalism with an aggressive style of activism characterized by anti-materialism, idealism and violence. (Front, 2012) Fascism projected Benito Mussolini who was the leader into premiership and it directs to the formation of new political dictatorship. Nazism is linked to political philosophies and the government of Adolf Hitler. The main purpose of Nazism was the tribal pre-eminence of the Aryan people, the eradication of the Jews who were substandard, aggressive foreign policy in relation to the eastern European nations and the importance of Hitler to be maintained. Similarities between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: Both groups have some aspects in common that is, both had rejected the importance of enlightenment over individual rationality and had put a special emphasis on emotional aspects and role of will on individuals. Italian fascists and German Nazi wants to dominate as leaders and were much concerned about their authoritative positions despite of the rights of masses; they want their intellectual aspects to be highlighted above all. (Mackel, 2012) The groups hold on the same philosophies and had rejected the theory of liberalism, political institutions of liberal democracy and the ideologies of Marxism. Fascists and German national Socialists had followed theories of social Darwinism by arguing that human development is based upon an elementary effort for existence in which only the strong individuals and strong nations can survive at the expense of others. (Front, 2012) Differences between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: Nazi German and Fascist Italy had different attitude towards race; racialism was very strong in the ideology of Nazism but less in Fascism ideology. Besides racism, both groups had a difference of opinion about nature of the State, tradition and modernity and the objectives of foreign policy. Speaking about nature of State, then Italian Fascism was analyzed by the theories of Totalitarianism and Corporatism whereas totalitarianism were rejected by German Nazi as they want to promote their own race, cast or creed. As far as technology is concerned then Germany has realized technology to be most important whereas Italian fascist wants to have technology along with their traditions. (Price, 2009) Factors of Power behind the Groups: The factors that allowed Italian to come into power are their fascism that is authoritarianism and superiority, where as for Germans, they have the power of Nazi as well as military rule. At that time German Nazi were having dominancy because of their propaganda campaigns, Hitlerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s speaking skills and intelligence, Nazi policies, they had got a huge support from big business or enterprises and criticism of the Weimar system of government. (Mangion, 2008) They were weak due to depression, cooperation and attitude of Germans that forced them to have power Speaking about Italian then they were holding dominancy because of their forces and other factors that motivate them were huge territorial gains and economic benefit for switching sides in World War One. Ultimate Goals of Two Groups: The ultimate goal of Italian Fascism was to rule the world or to hold dominancy or authority that is they want Roman Empire to rule the world forever. They want glories of Roman Empire to be maintained and to eliminate the turmoil rife that is anti-democracy and totalitarianism where as the purpose of Hitlerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Nazi Pact was to was to put the Germanic people at the peak of humanity. (History, 2012) He was more concerned with ethnic purification and dependence to create and work the space, than waging war itself. Role of Women in both Societies: Italian women were more to follow traditions whereas German women came forward to work with shoulders to shoulders. Actually before World War II, women were not given equal rights as compare to men; they were obliged to marry and to sit at home, but after World War II there was a severe shortage of men that become impossible for each and every women to marry so equal employment and opportunity programs were developed. (Levy, 2009) German women also took part in World War; they hold guns and transfer proper medication to the army. In Italy, there was a financial crisis due to war so they have to come forward their women to work for the survival. Conclusion: Due to Adolf Hitler and his philosophies, there was a rise of Germany to a fascist state in 1920s and early 1930s, before that Germany was unstable socially, economically and politically where as fascist economy was one of the biggest user of propaganda in the fascist regime, and something that Mussolini took great personal interest in. (Culture, 2012) Both struggled to keep their state and practices as dominant, but Italy was excessively influenced by German military power.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Nursing Processes: From Admission to Discharge

Nursing Processes: From Admission to Discharge Shan Jiang Develop an understanding of the nursing process from admission through to discharge of a client in a health care facility My patient is Mr. Peter William, 71 years old male, was found slumped in the shower accomplishing flaccid right limb and mouth and face drooping. In addition, this client also had slurred speech, and urine incontinence problems. In my care plan, I will outline the specific assessment tools and major health problems on Peter and present outcomes and interventions. There are two assessment tools that a nurse needs to do. One of these is the acute falls risk assessment tool. The main reason is that this client has right side weakness. This means that older people with limb flaccid contributes to high risks of falls. Nystrom and Hellstrom (2012, P. 473) state that the falling incidence of elderly with limb weakness is two times the number of those who are the same age without limb flaccid. Furthermore, Braden risk assessment scale also should be considered as a significant tool for this patient. The main reason is urine incontinence and limb weakness could lead to the impaired skin integrity and even pressure ulcer. Therefore, those two tools would be implemented due to urine incontinence and right side weakness. Peter has three main health problems, which are the guidelines to offer safe and high quality of care. The first and most urgent health problem is the risk of aspiration manifested by slurred speech and face and mouth drooping. The reason is that swallowing dysfunction contributes to high risk of aspiration and the difficulty of moving foreign materials from the airway (Garcia and Chambers 2010). As a result, this patient could not clear the airway effectively, leading to high risk of death. Another significant health problem is the risk of falls because of right side weakness. The reason is that this client would have high risk of injuries such as fracture even death, due to the high incidence of falling (Hindmarch et al. 2009 Naqul et al. 2007). The third health issue is risk of impaired skin integrity caused by urine incontinence and limb weakness. The reason why impaired skin integrity should be a priority is that broken skin contributes to various infections. All those evidence demonstrates that the key health problems are the risks of aspiration, falls, skin integrity and the prioritization bases on severity of threatening life safety. Relatively desired outcomes could be achieved by means of nursing interventions basing on the two priority health problems. Firstly, the incidence of aspiration is minimized and relevant complications would be prevented by multiple interventions. Rofes et al. (2011) report that food modification and other swallowing function rehabilitation contribute to preventing aspiration-related malnutrition and pneumonia and improving dysphagia. Furthermore, the falling rate decreases during hospitalized time attributes to professional nursing care. In other words, the falling rate of inpatient would decline dramatically due to the implement of multiple prevention methods. Therefore, professional and effective nursing interventions facilitate desired outcomes in terms of effective airway clearance and reducing falls rate. There are two interventions could be implemented to reduce aspiration. One of these is postural strategy. This means that modifying body and head position could minimize the incidence of aspiration and relevant respiratory complications. Rofes et al. (2011) report that postural approaches are easy and effective to be performed due to little fatigue and those involve head extension, turning head towards the unhealthy side and so forth. Those strategies could prevent residues from aspiration, such as titling head to the health side before making bolus directly to the stronger side through the gravity (Rofes et al. 2011). Another one is dietary modification. According to Garcia and Chambers (2010, p. 30), appropriate food texture according to the patient’s swallowing capacity contributes to ingesting foods sufficiently and thin liquids should be avoided due to fast transiting and solids. As a result, aspiration would be minimized. Therefore, postural methods and food modification could minimize the occurrence of aspiration. After discharge, various issues this patient might meet and relevant strategies could be implemented to combat those problems. Firstly, risk of falls still exists after hospital discharge. The main intervention is combining environment modification and education (Lord, Menzand Sherrington 2006; Hill et al. 2011). According to Lord, Menz Sherrington (2006, p. 58), there are a variety of factors associated with high risk of falls, such as home surroundings and falling incidence could be decreased to 31% in one year by assessing home hazards and educating the use of multiple mobility aids. Moreover, communication barrier is also a significant issue for this patient after discharge due to poor verbal communication. The reason is that aphasia would lead to low quality of life even depression (Hilari and Byng 2009). Therefore, relevant efforts should be taken to resolve this problem. According to Lanyon, Rose Worrall (2013, p. 360), aphasia groups contribute to promoting friendship and social issues through different modality communication activities, such as regaining meaningful interactions and communication skills. As a result, depression is minimized due to communication effectively and confidently. In present-day society, multiple chronic diseases are very common among the elderly and the clinical manifestations are complicated comparing to adults. This care plan indicates that the whole nursing procedure of an old patient with slurred speech, right side flaccid and urinary incontinence, which involves using assessment tools to identify major health problems: ineffective airway clearance and risk of falls and impaired skin integrity. Professional care could be applied to solve those problems including in hospital and post discharge. References Nystrom, A, Hellstrom, k 2012, ‘Fall risk six weeks from onset of stroke and the ability of the prediction of falls in rehabilitation settings tool and motor function to predict falls’, Clinical Rehabilitation, vol.27, no. 5, pp.473-79. Garcia, J M, Chambers, E 2010, ‘Managing dysphagia through diet modifications’, American Journal of Nursing, vol. 110, no.11, pp. 26-33. Hindmarch, D M, Hayen, A, Finch, C F, Close, J C T 2009, ‘Relative survival after hospitalization for hip fracture in older people in New South Wales, Australia’, Osteoporosis International, vol.20, no. 2, pp. 221-29. Rofes, L, Arreola, v, Almirall, J, Cabre, M, Campins, L, Peris, P G, Speyer, R, Clave, P 2010, ‘Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphasia and its nutritional and respiratory complications in the eldly’, Gastroenterology Research and Practice, vol.2011, viewed 7 May 2014, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1155/2011/818979> Lord, S R, Menz, H B, Sherrington, C 2006, ‘Home environment risk factors for falls in older people and the efficacy of home modifications’, Age and Ageing, vol. 35, no.2, pp.55-59. Hilari, K, Byng, S 2009, ‘Health-related quality of life in people with severe aphasia’, International Journal of Language Communication Disorders, vol. 44, no.2, pp. 193-205. Lanyon, L E, Rose, M L, Worrall, L 2013, ‘The efficacy of outpatient and community-based aphasia group interventions: a systematic review’, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, vol.15, no.4, pp.359-74. Theoretical Framework in Sociology Research: Bradford Riots Theoretical Framework in Sociology Research: Bradford Riots What kinds of questions do the different theoretical frameworks encourage you to ask about the Bradford ‘riots’? Which of these questions do you find useful and worth pursuing? Why? What are the limitations of the theoretical frameworks you have considered? What questions do they neglect? The following is a brief discussion of how some of the different theoretical frameworks of sociology can be used to gain an understanding of social events and structures, with the Bradford riots as the selected case study. The different theoretical frameworks of sociology offer us the structures to carry out and then evaluate social research on particular events or issues, although the differences in these theoretical frameworks need to always be taken into account. The different theoretical frameworks of sociology in fact emphasise differing actors such as individual choices / freedom of action, the impact of economic, political, and social factors, as well as social institutions and social structures. Several research questions are put forward for discussion and evaluation to assess which ones will fit in best with the different theoretical frameworks of sociology that are discussed. The reasons for selecting the final research questions will be explained. Finally the potential sho rtcomings of the selected research questions as well as the chosen theoretical frameworks will be discussed. There are arguably various kinds of questions that the different theoretical frameworks of sociology would encourage us to ask about the Bradford riots, or any other social event for that matter. The different theoretical frameworks of sociology are after all meant to give people the ability as well as the capacity to evaluate and therefore to understand general societies as a whole and indeed specific social events in isolation. The shared purpose of the different theoretical frameworks of sociology is to analyse and to comprehend contemporary societies, the asking of pertinent questions being a widespread and also a sound means of determining the direction and the results of sociological research into specific events or areas. The different theoretical frameworks of sociology would in all probability encourage us to ask probing and open ended kinds of questions to find out more details concerning the Bradford riots. Of course the different theoretical frameworks of sociology would then probably go on to provide differing explanations of why the Bradford riots happened, as well as the main causes of what took place. For example questions like the following ones would be highly useful for the different theoretical frameworks of sociology to ask in order to evaluate what happened: Could the Bradford riots have been accurately predicted? Did the Bradford riots have long-term social and economic causes? Did the Bradford riots have short-terms social and economic causes? Could the Bradford riots have been averted at all? What role did social factors such as alienation, racial discrimination, and poverty play in causing the Bradford riots? Why were the local authority, the West Yorkshire Police, and the central government unable to prevent the Bradford riots from taking place? Are there any lessons that the local authority, the West Yorkshire Police, and the central government can learn from the Bradford riots? And if so should changes be made to prevent further riots in the future? All of the questions mentioned above would certainly prove to be useful in the provision of a meaningful analysis of the Bradford riots within the context of the different theoretical frameworks of sociology to ensure that important and accurate conclusions are reached about the causes of the violent outbursts. To a large extent all of the questions that could be asked would provide pertinent answers and research for a full analysis of the events surrounding the Bradford riots. However some of the questions would undoubtedly provide more complete levels of data as well as relevant information than other questions concerning the Bradford riots. If answered in full some of the questions would provide enough information to answer the other closely related questions. Indeed some of the less important questions could be used as follow up or secondary questions to the main questions actually being asked. The main questions chosen to gain the most useful information about the Bradford riots would be the following ones: Did the Bradford riots have long-term social and economic causes? Did the Bradford riots have short-terms social and economic causes? (With a possible follow up question of ‘Could the Bradford riots have been accurately predicted?). What role did social factors such as alienation, racial discrimination, and poverty play in causing the Bradford riots? (With the back up question of ‘Why were the local authority, the West Yorkshire Police, and the central government unable to prevent the Bradford riots from taking place?). Are there any lessons that the local authority, the West Yorkshire Police, and the central government can learn from the Bradford riots? And if so should changes be made to prevent further riots in the future? These questions have been chosen as theoretically at least they offer the best prospects of gaining as a wide a perspective of possible of the social and other possible causes of the Bradford riots. The selected questions depending upon how they are actually answered would allow functionalists, Marxist, and structuralism sociologists for example to come up with highly diverse conclusions based on the same data and research information about the Bradford riots. The answers given in response to these questions could and will undoubtedly be interpreted in various ways that may or may not fit in with the different theoretical frameworks of sociology already studied such as functionalism, Marxism, and structuralism. Of course there is a long tradition of the adherents of functionalism, Marxism, and structuralism interpreting data and research information in ways that make their theoretical frameworks appear to be the best method of understanding social events such as the Bradford riots. Thus the proponents of the different theoretical frameworks of sociology would almost certainly argue that their preferred theoretical framework is better than all the other alternative frameworks in explaining and subsequently understanding the Bradford riots. They would also be arguing that their preferred theoretical framework would be the best for analysing entire societies as well as highly specific social events. If answered in full the questions to be asked in relation to the causes of the Bradford riots should provide enough evidence to draw up research findings and also conclusions that fit in with the different theoretical frameworks of sociology such as functionalism, Marxism, and structuralism. However the conclusions would of course vary depending upon which of the different theoretical frameworks of sociology was actually being used at the time. Although there might be some similarity with the social and economic factors believed to have contributed to the causes of the Bradford riots, even if the different theoretical frameworks of sociology will rank such factors in different orders of over all importance. At the centre of the theoretical differences between the different theoretical frameworks of sociology is the issue of causation. Basically deciding whether or not individuals are free to act as they wish, or whether social structures, or indeed whether social and economic factors have the greatest influence in causing or worsening social events such as the Bradford riots. In many respects the Bradford riots are a very pertinent example of a social event that could be used as a case study to enable us to understand the ways in which the different theoretical frameworks of sociology use data and information to come up with evaluations of society. Although the different theoretical frameworks of sociology would all claim to have the ability to fully analyse and also to evaluate whole societies in general as well as specific social events in this case the Bradford riots. For those academics and sociologists that fervently believe in the accuracy and the validity of any specific one of the different theoretical frameworks of sociology then it is harder to accept criticism about those frameworks. Criticism and comments that their preferred theories and the other theoretical frameworks do in fact have shortcomings that can adversely affect the validity of research findings based upon their concepts and theories. Functionalism was one of the different theoretical frameworks of sociology that has the ability to analyse and evaluate the causes of the Bradford riots despite having some serious shortcomings from theoretical perspectives. Functionalism contends that when taken as a whole and also in the case of specific social events are shaped as well as heavily influenced by the inter relationships between individuals, social groups and also social institutions. Functionalism contends those individual beliefs and also social groups such as families or religious communities and social institutions like the West Yorkshire Police, the local authority, and the central government heavily influence their actual behaviours. Functionalism does have the capacity to analyse and to also evaluate the consequences of the interaction between individuals, social groups, and also social institutions. There is a very serious weakness when it comes down the suitability of functionalism for examining the Bradford riots. Functionalism as such does not recognise the possibility of the conflict between individuals, social groups, and also social institutions taking place. A social theory that does not recognise social conflict or struggles is certainly limited in its scope to understand violent events, like riots for instance. Marxism as a theoretical framework does provide some useful methods for analysing and evaluating the Bradford riots, yet it has obvious drawbacks. Marxism generally contends that class divisions as well as social heavily influence societies and economic inequalities that increase the prospects for conflict. Using Marxism as a theoretical framework allows us to understand the part that social and economic inequality as well as poverty played in causing the Bradford riots. Marxism unlike other theoretical frameworks does not recognise racial discrimination as a direct cause of social conflicts, which ignores the possibility that the Bradford riots were partially or completed caused by issues related to race relationships inside Bradford itself. The Bradford riots were also linked with religious issues, most notably the increased levels of alienation and aggression found within young Asian Muslim men in Bradford that felt isolated due to their race as well as their religion. Whilst Marxism is useful because it acknowledges that alienation can be a significant cause of social conflict, it tends to over emphasise the importance of class conflict. In the case of Bradford the issues of race discrimination and race relations are more relevant to the situation leading up to the riots, due to the high ethnic minority population within the city. In those circumstances Marxism’s emphasis upon class conflict does appear to be relevant at all. The theoretical merits of structuralism are that it has the capacity to evaluate as well as examine the various structures and also institutions within contemporary societies, and theoretically at least their impact on specific social events such as the Bradford riots. Over all structuralism actively contends that it is social structures and also social institutions that under normal circumstances the position of individuals within their own societies. The supporters of the structuralism theory go on to contend that individuals within their own societies do not actually have any influence as well as meaningful power over the main decisions and events within their lives. Structuralism as a theoretical framework does tend to stress how important social structures and institutions such as the emergency services, local authorities, education services, and most importantly of all the central government are responsible for providing individuals with opportunities as well as maintaining social stability. The central government and all the institutions and social structures it controls have the capacity to positively improve peoples lives alongside the negative function of punishing those that attempt to overturn existing social structures. It is thus a theoretical framework that stresses the overwhelming importance of structures and institutions in contemporary societies, and how they can solve social problems. Perhaps more importantly how social structures and social institutions can solve social problems if there is the political The main practical and also theoretical shortfall of structuralism is that it underestimates the influence that individuals an d linked small social groups can have over specific social events including the Bradford riots. Individuals and linked small social groups, especially the most alienated and angry ones can cause a great deal of destruction as well as disruption within their local area, or indeed beyond it. Alienated individuals and small groups may be particularly destructive and disruptive when social institutions and structures fail to understand them or underestimate the threat to law and order that they actually pose. Bibliography T. Bilton et. al., Introductory Sociology, 4th edition (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002). J. Macionis and K Plummer Sociology: A global introduction (Pearson), 3rd edition, 2005 James Fulcher and John Scott’s Sociology (OUP, 2nd edition, 2003) Kenneth H. Tucker, Classical Social Theory. A Contemporary Approach (Oxford, Blackwell, 2002). John Hughes, Peter Martin and W. Sharrock, Understanding Classical Sociology. Marx, Weber, Durkheim (London: Sage, 1995). Pip Jones, Introducing Social Theory (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003). K. Morrison, Marx, Durkheim, Weber. Formations of Modern Social Thought (London: Sage, 1995). Steven Seidman, Contested Knowledge. Social Theory Today, third edition (Oxford, Blackwell, 2004). Rob Stones (ed.), Key Sociological Thinkers (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 1998).

Monday, August 19, 2019

Lord Of The Flies :: essays research papers

Character Analysis:Ralph: main character- Ralph is the narrator of the story.Jack: Jack is Ralph main enemy in the story. He leads the hunters.Piggy: Piggy is the smart one of the group. Simon: He is my favorite character in the story. He is viewed as the Christ-figure and interprets the mysteries of the island.Roger: Roger is Jack’s â€Å"sidekick† and is a vicious murderer at heart. Sam and Eric: The twins stick close to Ralph until they are forced to join the hunters. Their main job is to watch the signal fire. The littluns: The littluns are basically the younger boys and ride the bandwagon. The two boys Ralph and Piggy meet each other in a thick jungle and discover that they crashed in an airplane and are stranded. They also learn that there are no adults present on the island and that none of the adults survived the crash. As they approach a beach, they find an enormous conch shell. Piggy gives the conch a little toot and summons the rest of the boys on the island to the beach. The boys assemble and elect Ralph as the leader. Ralph then assigns the Choir, led by Jack, to be the hunters. Then Jack, Ralph, and Simon set out to explore the island. Near the end of their journey, they encounter a wild pig. Jack tries to kill it, but is unsuccessful. When the explorers get back, a meeting is held. The explorers explain that the island is deserted but there is enough food to keep them alive. Jack and the hunters promise to supply meat. Ralph makes a rule that whoever is in possession of the conch shell is allowed to speak. Ralph proposes the idea of a signal fire to alert passing ships of their presence. All the boys agree and everybody rushes to the hilltop to start a fire. The fire sparks the gathered wood into a blaze. One of the boys is reported missing but none of the boys will admit to the likelihood of an accident. Everyone is hard at work the next day, either building huts or hunting. Soon the younger boys loose interest and go off to play. A meeting is called and the boys come up with some new ideas and talk about problems. Meanwhile jack wanders off and enjoys the peace and quiet. Soon the boys get into a rhythm of everyday life.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Pitiful Ghost in Shakespeares Hamlet Essay -- GCSE English Litera

The Pitiful Ghost in Hamlet      Ã‚  Ã‚   In Shakespeare’s tragic drama, Hamlet, there is one character who is different from all the others. He is a supernatural being – a Ghost. His role is quite as important as anyone else’s. This essay will be devoted to an explanation of this Ghost.    Maynard Mack in â€Å"The World of Hamlet† elucidates the reader on how the Ghost introduces the problem of appearance versus reality:    The play begins with an appearance, an â€Å"apparition,† to use Marcellus’ term – the ghost. And the ghost is somehow real, indeed the vehicle of realities. Through its revelation, the glittering surface of Claudius’ court is pierced, and Hamlet comes to know, and we do, that the king is not only hateful to him but the murderer of his father, that his mother is guilty of adultery as well as incest. Yet there is a dilemma in the revelation. For possibly the apparition is an apparition, a devil who has assumed his father’s shape. (247)    So there is considerable doubt regarding this spirit within the mind of the protagonist – until after the decisive action of the play when both Horatio and Hamlet witnessed Claudius’ reaction. W.H. Clemen in â€Å"Imagery in Hamlet Reveals Character and Theme† describes the pervasive influence which the Ghost’s words have on the entire play:    Perusing the description which the ghost of Hamlet’s father gives of his poisoning by Claudius (I,v) one cannot help being struck by the vividness with which the process of poisoning, the malicious spreading of the disease, is portrayed:    Sleeping within my orchard,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   My custom always of the afternoon,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Upon my secure hour thy uncle stole,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   With juice of cursed hebenon in a vial,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   And ... ...o: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Masks of Hamlet. Newark, NJ: Univ. of Delaware P., 1992.    Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995. http://www.chemicool.com/Shakespeare/hamlet/full.html    Ward & Trent, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1907–21; New York: Bartleby.com, 2000 http://www.bartleby.com/215/0816.html    West, Rebecca. â€Å"A Court and World Infected by the Disease of Corruption.† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Court and the Castle. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1957.    Wilkie, Brian and James Hurt. â€Å"Shakespeare.† Literature of the Western World. Ed. Brian Wilkie and James Hurt. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992.         

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Company strategic plan Essay

According to company strategic plans, the company aims to achieve a net profit before tax of $1,000,000. The chief risks to this goal are: ââ€" poor sales due to economic downturn ââ€" increases in expenses such as wage expenses. In addition to Australian operations, the company is considering manufacturing overseas to take advantage of reduced costs. The company is also considering diversifying its product range to reduce exposure to poor sales of one product. Role You are the manager of Sales Centre A, based in Adelaide. The centre has achieved great success over the last year and consistently outsells other sales centres. In fact, due to the large number of accounts managed by your sales team and larger staff, your centre is expected to sell as much volume as the other two sales centres put together. Naturally, you expect cost allocations to reflect the both the needs and importance to the business of Cost Centre A. Task A The Sales General Manager, Sam Gellar has asked you to review the master budget and cost centre budgets prepared by the Senior Accountant. She would like you to meet with her to discuss the whether the budget projections are achievable, accurate, understandable and fair. She would like you to look at the budget for your cost centre closely, note any changes you think are necessary, develop an argument for the changes and negotiate those changes with her. Information you are aware of includes: ââ€" Sales in the first quarter (Q1), second quarter (Q2), and the fourth quarter (Q4) are generally 30% less than Q2. ââ€" Sales in Q2 depend on completion of 90% of repair and maintenance. ââ€" Commission negotiated with members of the sales team is now at 2.5%.

Porters Five Forces analysis of Ford Motor Company Essay

Traditionally ‘maximizing’ profits has been considered to be the objective of any company. Not any more†¦.This criteria has now been discarded. Now companies are supposed to have multiple objectives, monetary as well as non-monetary. There are short-term objectives as well as long-term ones. Strategists are supposed to prioritize all such objectives, keep an eye on the competitors and government policies, so that there is clarity and ease of decision making in situations where there is an apparent clash of objectives. While planning for long term objectives, the company is supposed to remain competitive. It was in 1974 that Michael Porter, who had been working on a new sub-field of economics known as Industrial Organization (IO), prepared a ‘‘Note on the structural analysis of industries’’ which is considered to be the idea behind the five forces model of Porter in subsequent years (Karagiannopoulos et al, 2005). In 1980, he published his first book, Competitive Strategy, which owed much of its success to the ‘‘five forces’’ framework, that this paper focuses on (Porter, 1980). This framework has since been regarded as a strategic tool to figure out the relative strengths of a company, and decide about the possible strategic policies that a company can adopt to make way for a long term survival. The company can acquire competitive advantage on its rivals on account of marketing efforts, brand building, value creation, innovation, operational efficiencies etc. But more important is to sustain the advantage, for which the company will have to take care and devise adequate policies for its customers, suppliers, competitors and other stake holders. The five forces, defined by Porter include; Bargaining Power of Suppliers i.e. to what extent suppliers can have an influence on the policy making of the company. Suppliers play an important part in making quality propositions for the company. The process of value creation encompasses managing quality in the entire chain of processes leading to the production of final product or service. Bargaining Power of Customers i.e. to what extent the customers can affect the policy making and fortunes of the company. Customers are indeed the key ingredients for a company, but the company’s profitability depends upon to what extent customers are willing to pay for the product. Threat of New Entrants often limits the diversification policies of a company. Depending upon such a threat the company decides whether to go it all alone or take the route of merger and acquisition. Such a threat of new entrants often results in a sense of urgency for the company. Threat of Substitute products often leads to steps like enlargement of portfolio, enhancement of quality, reduction in prices etc. Competitive Rivalry between Existing Players makes an interesting copy for newspapers and mainline media, as they thrive on the competitive rivalry and the steps and counter-steps being adopted by the competing companies. The level of competition greatly affects the earning potential of the company. In case of Ford Motors Company the Five Competitive Forces can be typically described as follows: Bargaining Power of Suppliers: ‘Suppliers’ comprises all sources for inputs that are needed in order to provide goods or services. Ford is one of the Big Three manufacturing companies in the US with its range of automobiles selling in over 200 markets across six continents. Since the company has manufacturing facilities at more than one place, so the suppliers profile too varies from one place to another. The suppliers too can be categorized in different categories like; Metal/ Body part suppliers: Such suppliers are often not found to be too much of a threat for the company, as there is good amount of rivalry amongst such companies as well. IT/ITES suppliers: The modern cars require a range of technologically advanced features which determine the quality and other distinctive features of the car. Therefore, such companies are in need of regular research and development mode depending upon the requirements of the car manufacturer. For example Sony Corp.’s is one of the suppliers for Ford offering Sony-branded audio systems in Ford and Mercury vehicles. Engine and auto part suppliers: Such companies too hold a good amount of leverage over the car manufacturer. For example, Ford has signed an agreement with Neapco, an affiliate of China’s auto parts supplier Wanxiang Group, to sell its Automotive Components Holding unit’s propshaft operations. In a market where speed to market is extremely vital for beating the competition, Ford’s dependency for such key components on its associate companies with whom it has long term agreements will of course help in warding off any appreciable threat from the supplier side. Ford has been able to maintain good working relations with its suppliers is evident from the statement of Alan R. Mulally, President and Chief Executive Officer of Ford during the company’s 2006 annual report when he sought to highlight the outstanding supplier, dealer and union partners (Datamonitor, 2007). Bargaining Power of Customers: Customers of course have plenty of options in the market place. And the customer will weigh all his options before going in for the purchase. Therefore Ford needs to be innovative and rely more on product differentiation. Though Ford has been catering to different customer segments in different measure, but of late the customer seems to have becoming very demanding and asking to have quality product at cheapest possible prices. In fact that includes the desire of having the best mileage providing car. Other car manufactures like GM, Toyota, Rolls Royce threaten to take away its monopoly over the luxury cars with their own version of sleek cars. Threat of New Entrants: Though it is not easy for new entrant to enter the Car and automobile industry as it is a capital intensive business as the economies of scale (minimum size requirements for profitable operations) leaves little room for a new start up company challenging the existing market share, yet the threat emanates from the existing competitors. For example the recent acquisition of Jaguar and Land Rover by an Indian car company presents some idea of the future threat emanating from the developing world. Till now, companies from West and the developed world used to dictate the policies and used to acquire companies from the developing part of the world, but the emergence of India and China on the horizon as strong contenders appears to have tilted the balance somewhat in their favor. Tata, an Indian car manufacturing company, is in the final stages of sealing the deal with Ford. Threat of Substitutes: A car’s substitute exists in the form of another car. For example a SUV can be a substitute for an MUV, a mid size car can be a substitute for a small size car etc. Therefore, the threat from substitutes exists if there are alternative products with lower prices and with better performance parameters for the same purpose. Ford faces aggressive competition in all areas of its business. The market design, manufacture, and sale of Cars and related peripheral products has become highly competitive. Moreover this market continues to be characterized by rapid technological advances in both hardware and software development, which results increasing the capabilities of existing products and software. This is resulting is the frequent introduction of new models with much reduced prices and better feature, and performance. Ford needs to keep its R&D activities in motion all the time. Competitive Rivalry between Existing Players: The car industry is indeed one of the most competitive industries in modern times. With the purchasing power of the consumer on the rise thanks to the globalization and liberalization era, which has tremendously boosted the earning potential of the professionals, particularly in the field so of IT and ITES. Car manufactures have been targeting this very segment with all the resources at its command. The profile of existing players keeps varying with the kind of market that is looked at. For example in US and most of the western part big manufactures alike GM, Rolls Royce, Toyota are the brands that Ford will have to contend with, while in Asia pacific region the local players have a key role. References: Karagiannopoulos, G.D.; Georgopoulos N. and Nikolopoulos K. (2005). ‘Fathoming Porter’s five forces model in the internet era’. VOL. 7 NO. 6 2005, pp. 66-76, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 1463-6697. Porter, M.E. (1980), Competitive Strategy, Free Press, New York, NY. Datamonitor (2007). Ford Motor Company-Company Profile. Datamonitor Americas, NY

Friday, August 16, 2019

Development of the Cold War Essay

Up until 1945 the tensions between the USSR and the USA had been covered by the fact that both sides were trying to fight against Hitler and therefore relations up until the war had been relaxed. However this changed after 1945 the victory against Germany brought them international superpower status giving them more control and influence over many countries especially in Eastern Europe. As a result Stalin changed and adapted policies accordingly to increase competition with the USA; both countries were fearful of each other hence why Stalin concentrated on things such as industry and ignoring agricultural production for example. I will explain what and why the cold war influenced Stalin’s policies inside the USSR and come to a conclusion. My first point is that Stalin focused his efforts even more on the development of industry than ever before. The reason why Stalin did this was to rival the USA’s superpower status and therefore they focused on quantitative rather than the qualitative side of industry. Stalin wasn’t worried if the products they produced were any good as long as they met the 5 year plan targets then he believed he could compete with the USA. This showed as according to the statistics every planned target in 1950 was apparently met e.g. the coal target was 250 million tons which they surpassed and reached 261 million tons. Even the figures may have been exaggerated it is clear that the Stalinist approach had worked in terms of recovering from the war as well making significant progress in terms of producing goods. My next point is again to do with industrial production, but more specifically how they focused on heavy industry and capital goods in order to help with defence and the production of nuclear weapons. In 1950 industrial production was almost up by 75% compared to 1940. The most significant increases were in the production of capital goods such as coal and steel which were important in terms of everyday living. Defence was also an important sector in the USSR as it received the most favourable treatment in the allocation of resources, including skilled labour. The reason why Stalin concentrated on these things was because he wanted to carry out the task and maintain their new superpower status. Stalin was also fearful of the USA and the UK because they had refused to share information with him on the atom bombs which increased the tensions further between them and the USA. But because of Stalin’s drive to carry through heavy industry and concentrate particularly on their defenc e he was able to use his skilled labour and eventually managed to produce their own bomb by 1949. Another change to policies inside the USSR was to do with social policies and more specifically the campaign against cosmopolitanism. The reason why Stalin approved of the campaign against cosmopolitanism was because he feared anything from the Western world and he was particularly scared of what would happen in Leningrad as it was known as the â€Å"window to the West† where Stalin believed foreign influences was most likely to enter the USSR. He therefore opposed and banned things such as jazz music which was seen as something that was particularly Western. It wasn’t just that though as what was known as the â€Å"Leningrad purge† in 1948 where over 200 leading Leningrad party officials were either arrested or shot also occurred. Other things that were controlled because of the cold war tensions included controls on what was read as well as what was viewed at cinemas & theatres. But the campaign against cosmopolitanism was also linked with the increased anti-Semitism, the discrimination and violence against Jews. Other examples include the doctor’s plot where Jewish doctors were blamed poisoning Zhadnov and plotting Stalin’s death as well as banning marriages with foreigners. The reason why Stalin did this was because the cold war essentially made him even more suspicious of the West and therefore made him become stricter in terms of the policies he carried out. Alongside the campaign against cosmopolitanism was the rise in Russian nationalism. The USSR distrusted the Western powers and capitalism and Stalin knew that the two sides (USSR and USA) could not work together without trying to fight for supremacy at some point. The USSR decided that they would do this by praising everything that was Russian and making out that anything Russian was better than anything from the West. But in general this was excessive and made them look insecure; this reflected that in the past they were often invaded by Western powers that had better technology, as well as showing that they weren’t used to their new superpower status. The reason why Stalin imposed these policies inside the USSR was to make sure the people knew that anything Russian was far superior to anything that was Western and make the USSR look even better in terms being seen as a great country from anywhere in the world. The essence of competition was important to Stalin as he wanted his country to look even greater than the USA. The victory against Germany in the Great Patriotic war gave the USSR the chance to expand and gain more communist allies and help spread their influence in Eastern Europe particularly as well as the world in general. Stalin concentrated his efforts mainly on Eastern Europe as an â€Å"insurance zone† essentially to help protect them if they did come under attack from the USA. After 1945 the USSR recaptured Baltic States and therefore he had control over some major Eastern European countries such as Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Romania. This was important for two reasons, one because it would add protection if they came under attack again as well as spread their communist roots/ideologies so that they would gain more influence for the future. This was even discussed with wartime allies, the USA and the UK at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences. This was to help decide the fate of post-war Europe. It was dominated by Stalin and the conferences helped decide on the amount of influence countries had and who would make key decisions. Stalin also used his powerful position to strip assets from the Eastern countries mentioned above to help rebuild Soviet industry. By doing this they could deal with the fact that Stalin was fearful of the USA because of their development of the atomic bomb and the increasing tensions between the two countries. The tension between the USSR and the USA also explains to some extent to why Stalin continued to ignore agricultural production and focus on industrial production as mentioned above. The situation got worse first during the war when the general public faced starvation because there was a lack of food and this continued to get worse as famine affected the USSR in 1946 & 47 when other Baltic states e.g. Moldova had to deal with drought. Agricultural production during the development of the cold war therefore continued to get worse as the planned 1950 target wasn’t met (didn’t get close). Another reason that could be suggested why Stalin ignored agricultural production was because there was a lack of competition with the USA in terms of agriculture, and therefore to him it didn’t really matter. Stalin’s rural economy was consequently a failure, which clearly underperformed and was obviously a weakness in the Soviet regime. The fact was because money was being directed towards industry there wasn’t any many to spend on producing food and providing modern equipment. My last point is what was known as â€Å"comecon† or short for The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. The Comecon was founded in 1949 by the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. The primary factors in Comecon’s creation were that Stalin’s desire was to co-operate and strengthen the international communist relationship at an economic level with the lesser states of Eastern Europe. This was a response to the USA’s marshal plan which provided aid and money to European countries that were affected by the war. Again this gives the sense of competition that Stalin liked to implement and show that the USSR was more than a match to the USA. The programme also encouraged trade and industrial between the communist countries. There was also an important legacy of this brief period of activity; the Sofia principle which radically weakened intellectual property rights, making each country’s technologies available to the others which greatly benefited the USSR because in terms of technology they were far behind most countries. If it wasn’t for the USA’s Marshall Plan then the USSR would probably not have gained advanced technology, but because of the influence of the cold war Stalin wanted to compete with the USA at everything and make them look superior in any way possible. In conclusion I believe the development of the cold war greatly influenced Stalin’s policies in the USSR. The fact that Stalin saw the USA as major competition in terms of being the ultimate superpower in the world also drove these policies faster than they might have been without the tensions of the cold war. But the fact that Stalin became more paranoid and suspicious as this reign went on also explains some changes in his policies e.g. becoming stricter on Jews. However in my opinion most of his policies including focusing on industrial production, ignoring agricultural production, introducing Comecon and the upsurge in Russian Nationalism can all be accounted for by the influence of the cold war.